Sunday, November 27, 2016

Production process and Uses of Cotton


Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will tend to increase the dispersion of the seeds.


Gossypium  hirsutum
Gossypium  barbadense
Gossypium  arboreum 
Gossypium  herbaceum


Organic cotton is generally understood as cotton, from plants not genetically modified, that is certified to be grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals, such as fertilizers or pesticides..

Genetically modified (GM) cotton was developed to reduce the heavy reliance on pesticides. The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) naturally produces a chemical harmful only to a small fraction of insects, most notably the larvae of moths and butterflies, beetles, and flies, and harmless to other forms of life.


1. Cotton is used to make highly absorbent bath towels and robes. 
2. Most T-shirts are made from cotton.
3. Bed sheets often are made from cotton
4. Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting.
5. Cotton is used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture, cotton paper, and in 
6. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber.


Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. The protein fiber of silk is composed mainly of fibroin and is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons. The best-known silk is obtained from the cocoons of the larvae of the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori reared in captivity.


1. Silk fibers from the Bombyx mori silkworm have a triangular cross section with rounded corners, 5–10         μm wide.
2. Silk has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, unlike many synthetic fibers.
3. Silk is one of the strongest natural fibers, but it loses up to 20% of its strength when wet.
4. Silk is a poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling.
5. Silk is resistant to most mineral acids, except for sulfuric acid.
6. The addition of alanine and serine makes the fibers strong and resistant to breaking.

Production process: 

The entire production process of silk can be divided into several steps which are typically handled by different entities. Extracting raw silk starts by cultivating the silkworms on mulberry leaves. Once the worms start pupating in their cocoons, these are dissolved in boiling water in order for individual long fibres to be extracted and fed into the spinning reel.


1. Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active.
2. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather. 
3.     It is often used for clothing such as shirts, ties,blouses, formal dresses, high fashion clothes, lining,        
4. It is used for upholstery, wall coverings, window treatments (if blended with another fiber), rugs, 
        bedding and wall hangings.
5. Silk has had many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes, bicycle tires.
6. Silk's attractive luster and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing applications.

To be continue.....