Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Classification & Definition of Textile Fibers

Classification & Definition of Textile Fibers

Textile :

The definition of textile is something related to fabrics or the fabric industry. textile is defined as cloth or woven or knitted fabric.

A piece of heavy linen that you buy in order to sew a dress is in example of a textile.

Classification of Textile Fiber :

Generally two types of Textile fiber-
1. Natural fiber.
2. Man made fiber.

Natural Fiber :

Natural fiber include those produced by plants, animals and geological processes. They are biodegradable over time. They can be classified according to their origin. 
Example : Vegetable, Animal Cotton.

Man-made Fiber : 

Synthetic or man-made fibers generally come from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals. But some types of synthetic fibers are manufactured from natural cellulose, including rayon, model, and the more recently developed Lyocell. Cellulose-based fibers are of two types, regenerated or pure cellulose such as from the cupro-ammonium process and modified or derivatives cellulose such as the cellulose acetates. 
Examplie : Fiber glass.

Difference between Natural Fiber and Synthetic fiber : 

               Natural Fiber
                   Synthetic Fiber
1. All the natural fiber comes from nature.
1. Synthetic fibers are completely man made.
2. Length of the fiber is nature given.
2. The length of fiber is controlled by men
3. Fibers are found in shape or filament form.
3. It is found in filament form but sometimes it could be converted into shape or cut length.
4. No need to spinneret for spinning process.
4. Spinneret is essential for filament production.
5. No need of chemical solution for yarn production.
5. Chemical solution is essential for yarn production.
6. Natural fabric is comfortable to wear.
6. Synthetic textile product is not as comfortable as natural product.

General Properties of Textile Fiber :

Tensile Strength :

There are a number of fibers, especially among the vegetable class ( such as those of the common milkweed, etc ). Which might prove of considerable value but for their lack of sufficient tensile strength. Although dependent also on other qualities, the resistance of a fiber to use and wear is primarily dependent on its tensile strength.

Length of Fiber :

The second important quality which determines the usefulness of a textile fiber is its length. Where a continuous thread is to be made up of a large number of individual elements, these elements must possess a considerable length with reference to their thickness, otherwise it would not be possible to make a thread that would hold together. In a general way and other conditions being equal, the strength of such a thread will be directly proportional to the length of the individual fiber elements employed.

Cohesiveness :

A third essential quality for a textile fiber is cohesiveness. By this is meant the property of the individual fibers cohering or holding on to one another when spun into a yarn. This is usually brought about by the surface of the surface of the fibers possessing a high degree of frictional resistance.

Pliability; Elasticity :

Another quality which is very essential to a satisfactory textile fiber is pliability, which permits of one fiber being easily wrapped around another in the spinning operation. The pliability of a fiber also determines on great measure its elasticity and resiliency, qualities which are often of prime importance in the manufacture of textile fabrics. Lack of these properties will make the fiber and its resulting products brittle and unyielding, and hence greatly limit the field of its usefulness.

To be continue.......

1 comment:

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